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From the Archive: Beauty Standards and Diet Culture in British Print Media, 1901-1966

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Authored by Nishah Malik
Published on 21st July, 2022 32 min read

From the Archive: Beauty Standards and Diet Culture in British Print Media, 1901-1966

Our exciting new collections, The Tatler, 1901-1965 and London Life 1965-1966, explore British high society across some of the biggest social and cultural changes in Britain. Encompassing just under 300,000 images and containing over 3,000 issues, that were published between July 1901 to December 1966, these two collections are an invaluable source for students and researchers alike. There is something within these collections to suit a wide variety of research interests from corsets, debutante balls, sporting, the Boer War, fashion, politics, World War’s, theatre to the Swinging Sixties. The Tatler and London Life are eclectic resources for all researchers of British society in the early to mid twentieth-century. 

Despite the diversity of the material, one thing that has remained relatively consistent across the material, spanning 65 years, is the message that only thinness equates to beauty. In the twenty-first century if you pick up your phone and open Tik Tok or Instagram or even pick up a magazine you will see endless posts of women with a similar lean body type and celebrities/influencers with photoshopped bodies. Along similar lines, publications are bombarded with articles equating thinness to beauty, for example “From losing weight to getting ripped: 10 tips to improve your health and beauty” and “Gemma Collins showcases her 3.5st weight loss” are just examples of two of the headlines published in 2022 regarding weight. The media propagates unrealistic beauty standards and celebrities, influencers, models and brands sell themselves in the media by creating an image of effortless, and in most cases unattainable, perfection. Researcher, Jasmine Fardouly, highlighted how “people are comparing their appearance to people in Instagram images, or whatever platform they're on, and they often judge themselves to be worse off”1. Recent research has shown that media and its idealisation of the perfect body has had a negative impact on women’s confidence and body image.

“Thin ideal images often accompany various advertised products. The pairing of which reinforces the idea that if you buy or use a particular product you too can be beautiful”2 - Jenifer Mills

The media feeds on women’s insecurities surrounding weight. Aside from simply seeing women with perfect bodies, if you are active on social media you will know it is virtually impossible to avoid posts advertising the latest diet fads. Detox teas, meal replacement shakes and appetite suppressant pills are just a few of the many “quick-fix” diet products that have exploded in popularity in recent years. Celebrities and influencers, such as Kim Kardashian, are frequently seen promoting appetite suppressant’s, detox shakes and other diet products followed by a “#ad”. However, this relationship between media, body image and a toxic diet culture is not a new one. A common denominator amongst every generation has been the battle between beauty and the concept of the ideal woman, particularly the notion that only thinness equates to beauty. The media has always played a large role in promoting a body beautiful image. 

This article aims to argue how the relationship between the media and the glorification of the ideal body is not a twenty-first century phenomenon, as the media have been creating and feeding off women’s insecurities for over 100 years. While also exploring the toxicity of diet culture within print media and the language used within weight loss adverts, by making particular reference to the weight loss adverts and advice in the Tatler and London Life magazines. 

Beauty Standards as Social Constructs 

“One of the reasons we do not take beauty as given, is because what counts and constitutes as beautiful is relative to time and space.”3 - Saadia Abid 

Before looking into the ways in which the Tatler and London Life promoted an ideal body it would be wise to explore what actually is beauty and what factors constitute as beautiful. Despite the age old saying that “beauty is in the eye of the beholder”, since the beginning of time humans have “sought to define beauty”, whether this be by “philosophy, mathematical constructs, social studies, or biology”,4 Peter Adamson has suggested that “the fascination with and the study of beauty has consumed our emotions and intellect”.5 The fascination with beauty, that Adamson mentions, suggests how beauty and what body is considered to be beautiful is in fact a socially constructed concept. Saadia Abid argues how beauty standards are “based on cultural standards and norms”.6 Along similar lines to Abid, Reischer and Koo maintained that these beauty standards are not static, but are in fact fluid and have “been a site of constant work”, further suggesting that since ancient times what is considered beautiful has been “redesigned in culturally appropriate ways”.7

Article from The Tatler titled "What is Beauty?"

Although one’s weight is a personal issue examples throughout history highlight how the ideal body and beauty is in fact a socially constructed concept. This concept of beauty as a social construct can be clearly be seen in an article published within The Tatler on 2nd September 1908 titled “What is Beauty?”. The article, by Spencer Leigh Hughes, discusses a recent beauty competition and explains the subjective nature of beauty competition verdicts. The article states how the verdicts depend on social, cultural and geographical factors, stating that “the general views prevailing in different lands differ widely”.8 Discussing some of the differences in what constitutes as beauty the article proclaims:

“In some countries the stouter the lady is the more she fascinates….This has been held by some connoisseurs to mean that the wider or more sweeping the curve the greater the beauty. Thus there are competitions in which a balloon like charmer walks off (or waddles off) with the prize”.9 

The article in The Tatler clearly highlights the fluidity of the definition of beauty from culture to culture. Elizabeth Pearce asserted that western society frequently identify “particular aspects of physical appearance as being beautiful or desirable” and in turn individuals with these characteristics are favored.10 This concept is known as the “halo effect”, a term which was coined by American psychologist, Edward Thorndike. Historically beauty ideals surrounding body image have shifted greatly. Throughout the years different aspects of a woman’s physical appearance, that Pearce mentioned, have been favoured more than others. In the mid to late-Victorian era a more of a fuller figure was considered beautiful, whereas by the 1920s a thin and boyish figure was the ideal. This shifted to an hourglass figure in the 1950s and a slimmer figure in the 1960s. By the 1980s a svelte, but curvy figure was the ideal, this then sifted to the “heroin chic” look of the 1990s of being extremely skinny. In the 2000s the ideal shifted once again to a flat stomach and thigh gap look, whereas in the 2020s, with the rise of Instagram influencers, the “thick” look of a slim waist and fuller thighs has become desirable.11 

Beauty in Print Media

“Beauty is conceived to be the mean between two extremes.”12 - Sir Joshua Reynolds

The whole beauty and diet industry is built upon the exploitation of these beauty ideals and the strive to make money from women’s insecurities. If you pick up a magazine in the twenty-first century you will see the pages full of women with similar lean body types and articles explaining the latest ways to achieve the desired look. However, this is not just a twenty-first century phenomenon, the media has played a major role in populating these ideal bodies for generation after generation. The Tatler and London Life magazines cover such a diverse date range and topics, however one thing that remained consistent throughout the issues is the frequent mention of the ideal body type and ways in which one can become more beautiful. 

Article from the Tatler titled "Beauty, and how to get it".

While Abid’s earlier comments about how beauty is relative to time and space do hold a great deal of validity, one thing that has been consistent for many years is that being thinner equates to being more beautiful. This can clearly be seen within articles and adverts in both The Tatler and London Life magazines. The 8th April 1902 issue of The Tatler included a “Beauty and How to Get it” guide, it consisted of images of eight exercises women could practice in order to achieve beauty. In particular, exercise 3 was accompanied by a short description which stated:

“If you are too stout this will reduce the adipose tissue: Stand erect, thrust right leg and arm forward, recover right leg and arm and repeat with left.”13

Other exercises include ways to get rounded hips and other weight loss exercises. Aside from this more specific guide on how to achieve beauty, The Tatler frequently included pages titled “Some of the Prettiest Girls in the United Kingdom” or “What is the American Type of Beauty?” which proceeded to include numerous images of similar petite looking women who were considered to be the most beautiful. Along similar lines, the 24th February 1904 issue off The Tatler included a page titled “The Curve of the Nose as a Test of Character”, which included a page of images of different noses followed by a description of what character the woman would posses. Some of the descriptions include “the flat-nosed goddess” and “the temperamental irregular nose”.14 These pages within The Tatler just go to show how the media places a great deal of importance on not just physical appearance, but a certain type of appearance and others that do not meet these requirements are viewed as too stout or “irregular”. 

An extract from the Tatler titled "The curve of the nose as a test of character"Jennifer Mills, in her study on the role of mass media in people’s perceptions of beauty, highlighted how traditional forms of media “affect perceptions of beauty and appearance concerns” and lead women to “internalise a very slender body type as ideal or beautiful”.15 This can be seen in the 17th February 1909 issue of The Tatler which included an article titled “Who has the Smallest Waist?”. The article mentions the popularity of corsets and includes images of women who supposedly have the smallest waist. The article begins by expressing that although wearing extremely tight corsets are technically “out of fashion”, for women “tiny waists and tight-lacing are always in vogue”. Going on to state that corsets, despite the dictates of fashion, will forever be in fashion, as along as “smartness and neatness are supposed to have attractions in the eyes of the opposite sex”.16 These comments clearly reiterate Mills comments, as one would only be considered smart and attractive if they had a slender waist. The article then proceeds to show photographs of women wearing 12, 13 and 15 inch corsets, followed by some comments from correspondent’s. Mrs M wrote to The Tatler to express the popularity of corsets and a tiny waist, maintaining:

“Both of my little daughters wear 15 inch corsets as a general thing and have done so for some time.”17

An article from The Tatler titled "Who has the smallest waist?"

The article mentions the story off a famous waitress at a Viennese café who arguably “possessed a waist so slender that it was the envy of all women who desired to be ultra chic or craved extreme slenderness”.18 This article certainly portrays how only a slender body can be beautiful, as tiny waists are given a great deal of importance within the article. They are not only portrayed as something a woman should be envious off, but are portrayed as something that needs to be obtained to attract “the eyes of the opposite sex”.19

Fashion article from The Tatler.

Mills’ comment, as well as the emphasis on having a slender waist, is even continued in the 2nd January 1957 issue of The Tatler. Every issue of The Tatler included a fashion supplement in which the latest fashions were discussed. Within this particular issue great importance is placed on women having a slender waist as otherwise a woman would not be able to wear the latest fashions, as “all fashion depends mainly on line”.20 Going on to state how “no woman will do justice to beautiful clothes unless her figure is streamlined to match”, essentially stating how if a woman was not thin she would not look beautiful in the latest fashions.21 Similarly, the London Life magazine is full off images of women with the perfect slim 1960s ideal body type. A woman with a larger figure is never presented in these magazines, the rare occasion when a woman with a fuller figure is presented is when she is shown as a before weight loss image, rather than someone who is considered to be beautiful.

Diet Culture in Print Media

“A woman’s age is estimated not by her birthdays, but her beauty.”22 - The Tatler, 11th October 1922

Analysing old magazines can provide perpetual material on a number of topics, they provide a “fascinating window onto our social history”.23 Richard Pollay expressed that exploring advertisements in old magazines can be the most beneficial, stating that while on the surface advertisements do not appear beneficial they in fact reveal “our evolution as a society” and highlight consumption patterns, as well as “displaying the values of culture”.24 Along similar lines, Stefan Schwarzkopf maintained that the study of advertisements transgresses disciplinary boundaries “between economics, sociology, political studies and history”.25 Advertisements have appeared in British print media for centuries, in particular book advertisements began appearing in newspapers in the eighteenth-century.26 It was not until the latter half of the eighteenth and early nineteenth-century when magazine and newspaper adverts began targeting women and promoting beauty products, most namely the Pears Soap in 1807.27 Amy Lloyd expressed that during the second half of the nineteenth-century, advertising expanded greatly. Going on to state how this was “fuelled by a number of developments” such as an increase in real wages, an increase in consumer spending, an increase in the number of non-essential products, as well as the popularity of advertisements. Lloyd expressed that “more and more goods were being advertised to an increasingly receptive public”, such as clothing, medicine, furniture, food, new inventions and this continued into the twentieth-century. Within the earlier issues of The Tatler each issue only included a mere handful of adverts, however as the decades progressed pages and pages of adverts began appearing. The adverts within The Tatler included medicine, cigars, alcohol, fashion, cars, beauty, food and also the advertising of weight loss products. 

The frequent population of the ideal body image within the media has created generations of women with insecurities over their bodies. After creating these insecurities, the media and brands then feed of these insecurities and sell women products that can change their bodies to the ideal. This is supported by Mills’ article, in which she expressed that the thin ideal images within the media “often accompany various advertised products”.28 Going on to reinforce the message that “if you buy or use a particular product you too can be beautiful”.29 Over the past 100 years the diet industry has rapidly grown into a billion-dollar industry that is estimated to reach roughly 377.3 billion dollars by 2026.30 The twenty-first century is not shy of seeing weight loss products promoted on social media followed by a “#AD”, however again this is not just a twenty-first century phenomenon. Weight-loss products have been around and advertised in mainstream media for over 100 years. In particular, The Tatler included the advertisements of a range of quick fix weight loss products from brands such as Antipon, Vaco Reducing Cups and Adiposttes. 

"The Royal Road to Beauty" article from The Tatler.

“There is absolutely no need whatsoever to suffer from over fatness.”31 – The Tatler, 26th April 1911

From as early as 1906 weight loss adverts began appearing in The Tatler, in particular the 7th November 1906 issue contained The Tatler’s first advertisement of Antipon. Antipon was described as a “splendid tonic and powerful fat absorbent” that ensured a “wonderful metamorphosis” that was both quick and long lasting.32 This “remedy for the disease of obesity” claimed that the night of the first dose users will see a decrease of between 8oz to 3Ibs. The adverts for Antipon frequently mentioned how by taking this tonic women’s beauty shall return again, as well as mentioning how Antipon was “the royal road to beauty”. However, Antipon was nothing but a fad, as in 1909 the British Medical Association, “in an attempt to rationalise drug treatment and expose fraudulent claims”, began an investigation into Antipon.33 They found that the tonic only contained citric acid diluted with alcohol, water and colouring, meaning it contained no substance that could aid weight loss. However the persuasive copy within the advertising made it not only popular amongst British readers of The Tatler but also colonial readers, as Antipon was also stocked by wholesale druggists in Australia, South Africa, India and Canada. 

An article from the Tatler titled "The charm of charms"

Alongside the text, which spouted scientific claims, the Antipon adverts frequently included illustrations to back up their claims. The 8th June 1910 issue contained an illustration of a man and woman rowing down a lake with a shocking caption:

“Husband: When I pulled you down here last year it was precious hard work, I remember. Wife: Yes, Neither of us had taken Antipon then you know. Think of the difference”34

An article from the Tatler titled "Beauty is power".

Along similar lines, the Antipon advert within the 13th October 1909 issue of The Tatler discussed the limitations of being overweight. It expressed how within the civilised world beauty means when ones body “is in perfect proportion to the head, feet and hands”, mentioning that beauty is power and the most desirable woman is one with a “well formed figure”.35 The advert goes on to make shocking comments about fashion and a fuller figure, as the advert included illustrations of two women in evening gowns, one was slimmer and one had a fuller figure. The illustrations were accompanied by a demeaning comment:

“Look at the sketch on this page of two women coming down the stairs wearing gowns built on exactly the same lines, but the effect is totally different. Let’s hope the woman on the right for her own peace of mind does not see herself as others see her. It is not only in evening gowns that she is a sorry sight.”36

Reading this from a twenty-first century perspective is shocking, but is not that far from the “#AD” that influencers promote on Instagram. The Antipon advert also mentioned how “obesity is such a grace destroying disease”, if a woman who was or thought she was slightly larger saw this advert it would certainly make her feel worthless and not worthy of nice fashions. The demeaning comments within the Antipon advert further highlights the toxicity of diet culture and the ways in which the media create insecurities for women.

“You’ve never tried anything like this wonderful new method of Eugene Christian’s before.”37 – The Tatler, 13th May 1925

Between the years 1924 and 1926, Vaco Reducing Cup advertisements began appearing in The Tatler. Vaco Reducing Cup’s was a suction cup that claimed to take off fat in under 3 minutes, claiming that it “quickly reduces any fleshy part” which in turn reveals “a youthfully slender figure”. The brand praised itself on customers not having to diet or use pills to achieve quick weight loss, as well as claiming you can target weight loss to a certain area. Pollay maintained that the “advertisements of various eras are simply different means of trying to accomplish the same ends”,38 this is certainly the case within relation to the advertisements of Antipon and the Vaco Reducing Cups, as both assert how a woman needs to loose weight if she wants to wear the latest fashions. The 13th May 1925 issue of The Tatler includes a Vaco Reducing Cup advert which states how women were so stout they “could never wear light colours or attractive styles without being a conspicuous marvel”.39 Going on to state how this product has “enabled them to wear the most chic and fashionable clothes”.40 This is another example of how the media creates insecurities and highlights to women that they cannot be fashionable and beautiful if they are stout. 

An article from The Tatler titled "new 3 minute treatment takes off fat - just where you want to lose it!".

“At last a simple secret has been discovered by the world’s greatest food specialist, which enables you to eat a pound a day off your weight without the slightest discomfort”41 - The Tatler, 13th May 1925

The Vaco Reducing Cup was sold by Eugene Christian. Eugenine Christian was an American naturopath and nutritionist who had no real medical qualifications, however proclaimed he was a “food scientist”. Christian, who had a reputation of being the “dean of American food faddists”, developed what was known as the "Christian Natural Food Company" in which he sold fad food products.42 He also developed the “Eugene Christian School of Applied Food Chemistry” under which he sold a $100 food course where students would receive a fake diploma upon completion. The Journal of the American Medical Association described this course as “the blind leading the blind”. Christian’s organisation later came under the name of “The Corrective Eating Society”, it was under this society that he commercialised the use of quack weight loss products such as the Vaco Reducing Cup in the 1920s.43 The fact The Tatler, a very respected publication, included adverts from a disputable brand just goes to show the lack of regulations on weight loss products and just how much the notion that women need to be thin to be beautiful was so passively engrained into the media by the 1920s. 

In 1976, Jeffrey Shrank stated that the verbal or print part of any weight loss advert “makes some claim of superiority for the product being advertised”.44 Shrank came up with a list of ways weight loss brands create this sense of superiority through words. He explained how in the diet industry one of the famous claims made are false scientific claims, which try to use clinically proven statements such as “scientifically proven” or “recommended by 15,000 doctors” to sell their products.45 This is exactly what Christian did with his product, as frequently the adverts within The Tatler mention how over 75,000 products have been sold, due to “science coming forward with a simple harmless appliance” to loose weight. Alongside these claims, the advert included “real life” statements from women. One woman called Miss F H, maintained that before she began using the Vaco Reducing Cups she weighed 12 stone, however a few weeks later she weighed 10 stone. While other women claimed they lost 2 pounds in 2 days and 26 pounds over a month. However, these were just false claims as the Journal of the American Medical Association described one story of a woman who had brought the Vaco Reducing Cups, yet “found that it was valueless except as a means of raising welts”. Going on to state how the woman “decided to turn the thing to some real use by attaching a piece of broom stick to it” and using it to flush the drain pipe in her kitchen sink.46 

An article from the Tatler titled "Slimming in Safely"

These weight loss adverts did not stop in the early-1920s, by the mid-1930s a new slimming treatment called Adiposettes began circulating within The Tatler. The treatment consisted of “a plant extract containing iodine-albumin combined with vegetable and synthetic laxatives”, essentially a laxative which was promoted for weight loss.47 The treatment claimed to reduce weight in a matter of weeks because there is no “excuse for a woman to carry any unwanted pounds on her figure”.48 Similar to the linguistic strategies used within the Antipon and Vaco Reducing Cups adverts, the Aniposettes advert within the 8th January 1936 issue of The Tatler stated:

“The woman who is too stout finds it costs much more to dress than her slim sister. Those delectable ready to wear models are not for her. Dress makers put up their charges for her and when she has spent a small fortune on her clothes she has the exasperation of knowing that she does not look half so well as a slender sister who has picked up a bargain off the peg.”49 

Once again weight loss brands portray how a woman is not just at a visual or fashion loss, but at an economic loss for having a fuller figure. This paragraph highlights how the media creates insecurities and then sells you products to fix these insecurities.

London Life magazine article titled "How People are Slimming"

Rather than individual weight loss adverts, the London Life magazine includes weight loss guides selling various different products and treatments to loose weight. These guides include headlines such as “How to Get Things Done in a Hurry”, “How People are Slimming” and “Take the Weight off Your Feet”. The 12th March 1966 issue of London Life includes the guide “Take the Weight off Your Feet”, the article contains 8 different treatments that can be done to loose weight. This includes treatments such as the slender tone machine, steaming, pills and injections at Harley Street by Doctor Phillip Lebon. Within the guide Lebon states how “fatties fall into four different categories”, those who gain weight but can easily take it off, those who need pills to loose weight, those who are compulsive eaters and those who have emotional problems. Lebon’s treatment included “daily injections of a hormone called chrionic gonadotrophin” which is “a hormone secreted from the placenta during pregnancy”. However, the most shocking has to be the use of slimming cruises, which was a cruise that cost £99 that one could go on to become “13 Ibs lighter”.50

Gender, Media and Beauty Standards

This article has shown how within the media there has been a stigma around being larger since as early as the 1900s. Print media not only idealised a specific body type, but also sold you products to achieve a “a youthfully slender figure”. David Haslam explained that despite being a fad Antipon sold extremely well, highlighting how this was more of “a tribute to the power of advertising than to medical science”.51 Weight Loss adverts strategically used language, scientific claims and illustrations to sell their products to women in order for them become beautiful. Pollay maintained how analysing adverts within publications reveal “our evolution as a society”.52 However, as this article has shown, it is rather concerning that the weight loss adverts remained pretty much consistent throughout the 65 year period in question. This suggests that as a society we have not adapted over time in regard to the notion that only thinness equates to beauty, despite British society changing dramatically in other aspects. Dr Morris Fishbein, who wrote extensively on diet fads, supports this notion. Within his essay on Drug Treatment and Fads, in which he discussed the dangers of dinitrophenol he stated that:

“Every 6 months there is some new fad or some new technique to which women flock in considerable numbers until science shows their fallacy and harm.”

Fishbein’s comment demonstrates how consumers will always want a quick root to weight loss. This in combination with Pollay’s comment highlights the toxicity of diet culture and how it has become a vicious cycle. The reason why diet adverts, shown within The Tatler, continued throughout and beyond the period is because there is a market for it due to the image perpetuated within the media that only thinness equates to beauty for women and that is the only factor that equates to value in society. By contrast it is rather interesting that the adverts targeted to men within The Tatler were mainly cars, alcohol and cigar products and the subsequent adverts gave the impression that a man would simply be “cooler” if he brought these products, rather than a comment on their appearance. History has unfortunately shown how the medias relationship with diet culture and beauty is an extremely toxic and long lasting one that has even carried on until 2022 and is clearly something that will continue in the future. 

  1. Okaes, Kelly, "How Social Media Affects Body Image", BBC, (12th March 2019), Accessed via: 
  2. Mills, Jennifer, Shannon, Amy, Hogue, Jacqueline, “Beauty, Body Image, and the Media” in Peaslee Levine, Martha (ed.), Perception of Beauty (London: IntechOpen, 2017), p. 145.
  3. Abid, Saadia, “On Being and Becoming Beautiful: The Social Construction of Feminine Beauty”, Pakistan Social Sciences Review, June 2021, 5:2, p. 403.
  4. Adamson, Peter, "Modern Cocepts of Beauty", 11;4, (2003), p. 295.
  5. Ibid. 
  6. Abid, Saadia, “On Being and Becoming Beautiful: The Social Construction of Feminine Beauty”, Pakistan Social Sciences Review, June 2021, 5:2, p. 403. 
  7. Ibid, p. 404. 
  8. The Tatler, 2nd September 1908, British Online Archives
  9. Ibid. 
  10. Pearce, Elizabeth, "What is Beauty?", Accessed via:
  11. Van Edwards, Vanessa, "Beauty Standards: See How Body Types Change Through History", Science of Peoplle, Accessed via:
  12.  The Tatler, 13th October 1909. British Online Archives
  13.  The Tatler, 8th April 1902, British Online Archives
  14. The Tatler, 24th February 1904, British Online Archives
  15. Mills, Jennifer, Shannon, Amy, Hogue, Jacqueline, “Beauty, Body Image, and the Media”, p. 145.
  16.  The Tatler, 17th February 1909, British Online Archives
  17. Ibid.
  18. Ibid
  19. Ibid.
  20.  The Tatler, 2nd January 1957, British Online Archives
  21.  Ibid
  22. The Tatler, 11th October 1922, British Online Archives.
  23.  Pollay, Richard, "The Subsiding Sizzle: A Descriptive History of Print Advertising, 1900-1980", Journal of Marketing, 49:3, (1986), 24.
  24. Ibid. 
  25. Schwarzkopf, Stefan, "Sources for the History of Advertising in The United Kingdom: The Records of Advertising Agencies and Related Advertising Material at The History of Advertising Trust". 
  26. Morgan, Gwenda, Rushton, Peter, "Visible Bodies: Power, Subordination and Identity in the Eighteenth-Century Atlantic World", Journal of Social History (2015), 39:1, pp. 39-64.
  27.  Strachan, John, Advertising and Satirical Culture in the Romantic Period, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), p. 59. 
  28. Mills, Jennifer, Shannon, Amy, Hogue, Jacqueline, “Beauty, Body Image, and the Media” in Peaslee Levine, Martha (ed.), Perception of Beauty (London: IntechOpen, 2017), p. 145.
  29. Ibid.
  31.  The Tatler, 26th April 1911, British Online Archives 
  32.  The Tatler, 7th November 1906, British Online Archives
  33. Chambers, Ruth, Tacking Obesity and Overweight Matters in Health and Social Care, (London: Taylor & Francis, 2022)
  34. The Tatler, 8th June 1910, British Online Archives
  35. The Tatler, 13th October 1909, British Online Archives
  36. Ibid. 
  37. The Tatler, 13th May 1925, British Online Archives. 
  38.  Pollay, Richard, "The Subsiding Sizzle: A Descriptive History of Print Advertising, 1900-1980", Journal of Marketing, 49:3, (1986), 24.
  39. The Tatler, 13th May 1925, British Online Archives.
  40.  Ibid. 
  41. Ibid. 
  42. American Medical Association. (1911). Nostrums and quackery: articles on the nostrum evil and quackery reprinted from the Journal of the American Medical Association. lst ed. Chicago: Press of American Medical Association, p. 59.
  43. Ibid.
  44. Schwarzkopf, Stefan, "Sources for the History of Advertising in The United Kingdom: The Records of Advertising Agencies and Related Advertising Material at The History of Advertising Trust". 
  45. Ibid. 
  46. American Medical Association. (1911). Nostrums and quackery: articles on the nostrum evil and quackery reprinted from the Journal of the American Medical Association. lst ed. Chicago: Press of American Medical Association, p. 59.
  47. The Tatler, 8th January 1936, British Online Archives.
  48. Ibid. 
  49. Ibid.  
  50. The Tatler, 12th March 1966, British Online Archives. 
  51. Chambers, Ruth, Tacking Obesity and Overweight Matters in Health and Social Care, (London: Taylor & Francis, 2022)
  52. Pollay, Richard, "The Subsiding Sizzle: A Descriptive History of Print Advertising, 1900-1980", Journal of Marketing, 49:3, (1986), 24.

Authored by Nishah Malik

Nishah Malik

Nishah Malik is Collections Editor at British Online Archives. Nishah gained a Masters in History from the University of Derby in 2020. Her research interests centre around South Asian culture and heritage, as well as the history and experiences of the South Asian diaspora. She also has a keen interest in women's history.

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The British Online Archives blog is a platform for scholars to present their research to students and the general public. The posts cover a range of historical themes and debates from around the world. The opinions expressed represent those of the authors, not British Online Archives or Microform.

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